This chapter has provided a brief overview of some of the more important and fundamental concepts that underpin spatial analysis. Many more will be encountered at various points in this book, and many more can be found in the background readings cited in Section 1.3.2, Suggested reading. These concepts and others together frame the theory of (geo)spatial analysis, just as the field of statistics is framed by the concepts of statistical analysis. While much of spatial analysis will appear intuitive, it is important to recognize that it is underpinned by concepts and terms whose meanings are often far from intuitive, and require explicit recognition.